Vyper ERC-721 Contract Walkthrough
The ERC-721 standard is used to hold the ownership of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT). ERC-20 tokens behave as a commodity, because there is no difference between individual tokens. In contrast to that, ERC-721 tokens are designed for assets that are similar but not identical, such as different cat cartoons(opens in a new tab) or titles to different pieces of real estate.
In this article we will analyze Ryuya Nakamura's ERC-721 contract(opens in a new tab). This contract is written in Vyper(opens in a new tab), a Python-like contract language designed to make it harder to write insecure code than it is in Solidity.
1# @dev Implementation of ERC-721 non-fungible token standard.2# @author Ryuya Nakamura (@nrryuya)3# Modified from: https://github.com/vyperlang/vyper/blob/de74722bf2d8718cca46902be165f9fe0e3641dd/examples/tokens/ERC721.vy4Nusxa olish
Comments in Vyper, as in Python, start with a hash (
#) and continue to the end of the line. Comments that include
@<keyword> are used by NatSpec(opens in a new tab) to produce human-readable
1from vyper.interfaces import ERC72123implements: ERC7214Nusxa olish
The ERC-721 interface is built into the Vyper language. You can see the code definition here(opens in a new tab). The interface definition is written in Python, rather than Vyper, because interfaces are used not only within the blockchain, but also when sending the blockchain a transaction from an external client, which may be written in Python.
The first line imports the interface, and the second specifies that we are implementing it here.
The ERC721Receiver Interface
1# Interface for the contract called by safeTransferFrom()2interface ERC721Receiver:3 def onERC721Received(4Nusxa olish
ERC-721 supports two types of transfer:
transferFrom, which lets the sender specify any destination address and places the responsibility for the transfer on the sender. This means that you can transfer to an invalid address, in which case the NFT is lost for good.
safeTransferFrom, which checks if the destination address is a contract. If so, the ERC-721 contract asks the receiving contract if it wants to receive the NFT.
safeTransferFrom requests a receiving contract has to implement
1 _operator: address,2 _from: address,3Nusxa olish
_from address is the current owner of the token. The
_operator address is the one that
requested the transfer (those two may not be the same, because of allowances).
1 _tokenId: uint256,2Nusxa olish
ERC-721 token IDs are 256 bits. Typically they are created by hashing a description of whatever the token represents.
1 _data: Bytes2Nusxa olish
The request can have up to 1024 bytes of user data.
1 ) -> bytes32: view2Nusxa olish
To prevent cases in which a contract accidentally accepts a transfer the return value is not a boolean, but 256 bits with a specific value.
This function is a
view, which means it can read the state of the blockchain, but not modify it.
Events(opens in a new tab) are emitted to inform users and servers outside of the blockchain of events. Note that the content of events is not available to contracts on the blockchain.
1# @dev Emits when ownership of any NFT changes by any mechanism. This event emits when NFTs are2# created (`from` == 0) and destroyed (`to` == 0). Exception: during contract creation, any3# number of NFTs may be created and assigned without emitting Transfer. At the time of any4# transfer, the approved address for that NFT (if any) is reset to none.5# @param _from Sender of NFT (if address is zero address it indicates token creation).6# @param _to Receiver of NFT (if address is zero address it indicates token destruction).7# @param _tokenId The NFT that got transferred.8event Transfer:9 sender: indexed(address)10 receiver: indexed(address)11 tokenId: indexed(uint256)12HammasiNusxa olish
This is similar to the ERC-20 Transfer event, except that we report a
tokenId instead of an amount.
Nobody owns address zero, so by convention we use it to report creation and destruction of tokens.
1# @dev This emits when the approved address for an NFT is changed or reaffirmed. The zero2# address indicates there is no approved address. When a Transfer event emits, this also3# indicates that the approved address for that NFT (if any) is reset to none.4# @param _owner Owner of NFT.5# @param _approved Address that we are approving.6# @param _tokenId NFT which we are approving.7event Approval:8 owner: indexed(address)9 approved: indexed(address)10 tokenId: indexed(uint256)11HammasiNusxa olish
An ERC-721 approval is similar to an ERC-20 allowance. A specific address is allowed to transfer a specific token. This gives a mechanism for contracts to respond when they accept a token. Contracts cannot listen for events, so if you just transfer the token to them they don't "know" about it. This way the owner first submits an approval and then sends a request to the contract: "I approved for you to transfer token X, please do ...".
This is a design choice to make the ERC-721 standard similar to the ERC-20 standard. Because ERC-721 tokens are not fungible, a contract can also identify that it got a specific token by looking at the token's ownership.
1# @dev This emits when an operator is enabled or disabled for an owner. The operator can manage2# all NFTs of the owner.3# @param _owner Owner of NFT.4# @param _operator Address to which we are setting operator rights.5# @param _approved Status of operator rights(true if operator rights are given and false if6# revoked).7event ApprovalForAll:8 owner: indexed(address)9 operator: indexed(address)10 approved: bool11HammasiNusxa olish
It is sometimes useful to have an operator that can manage all of an account's tokens of a specific type (those that are managed by a specific contract), similar to a power of attorney. For example, I might want to give such a power to a contract that checks if I haven't contacted it for six months, and if so distributes my assets to my heirs (if one of them asks for it, contracts can't do anything without being called by a transaction). In ERC-20 we can just give a high allowance to an inheritance contract, but that doesn't work for ERC-721 because the tokens are not fungible. This is the equivalent.
approved value tells us whether the event is for an approval, or the withdrawal of an approval.
These variables contain the current state of the tokens: which ones are available and who owns them. Most of these
HashMap objects, unidirectional mappings that exist between two types(opens in a new tab).
1# @dev Mapping from NFT ID to the address that owns it.2idToOwner: HashMap[uint256, address]34# @dev Mapping from NFT ID to approved address.5idToApprovals: HashMap[uint256, address]6Nusxa olish
User and contract identities in Ethereum are represented by 160-bit addresses. These two variables map from token IDs to their owners and those approved to transfer them (at a maximum of one for each). In Ethereum, uninitialized data is always zero, so if there is no owner or approved transferor the value for that token is zero.
1# @dev Mapping from owner address to count of his tokens.2ownerToNFTokenCount: HashMap[address, uint256]3Nusxa olish
This variable holds the count of tokens for each owner. There is no mapping from owners to tokens, so
the only way to identify the tokens that a specific owner owns is to look back in the blockchain's event history
and see the appropriate
Transfer events. We can use this variable to know when we have all the NFTs and don't
need to look even further in time.
Note that this algorithm only works for user interfaces and external servers. Code running on the blockchain itself cannot read past events.
1# @dev Mapping from owner address to mapping of operator addresses.2ownerToOperators: HashMap[address, HashMap[address, bool]]3Nusxa olish
An account may have more than a single operator. A simple
HashMap is insufficient to
keep track of them, because each key leads to a single value. Instead, you can use
HashMap[address, bool] as the value. By default the value for each address is
False, which means it
is not an operator. You can set values to
True as needed.
1# @dev Address of minter, who can mint a token2minter: address3Nusxa olish
New tokens have to be created somehow. In this contract there is a single entity that is allowed to do so, the
minter. This is likely to be sufficient for a game, for example. For other purposes, it might be necessary
to create a more complicated business logic.
1# @dev Mapping of interface id to bool about whether or not it's supported2supportedInterfaces: HashMap[bytes32, bool]34# @dev ERC165 interface ID of ERC1655ERC165_INTERFACE_ID: constant(bytes32) = 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001ffc9a767# @dev ERC165 interface ID of ERC7218ERC721_INTERFACE_ID: constant(bytes32) = 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000080ac58cd9Nusxa olish
ERC-165(opens in a new tab) specifies a mechanism for a contract to disclose how applications can communicate with it, to which ERCs it conforms. In this case, the contract conforms to ERC-165 and ERC-721.
These are the functions that actually implement ERC-721.
1@external2def __init__():3Nusxa olish
In Vyper, as in Python, the constructor function is called
1 """2 @dev Contract constructor.3 """4Nusxa olish
In Python, and in Vyper, you can also create a comment by specifying a multi-line string (which starts and ends
"""), and not using it in any way. These comments can also include
NatSpec(opens in a new tab).
1 self.supportedInterfaces[ERC165_INTERFACE_ID] = True2 self.supportedInterfaces[ERC721_INTERFACE_ID] = True3 self.minter = msg.sender4Nusxa olish
To access state variables you use
self.<variable name> (again, same as in Python).
These are functions that do not modify the state of the blockchain, and therefore can be executed for free if they are called externally. If the view functions are called by a contract they still have to be executed on every node and therefore cost gas.
These keywords prior to a function definition that start with an at sign (
@) are called decorations. They
specify the circumstances in which a function can be called.
@viewspecifies that this function is a view.
@externalspecifies that this particular function can be called by transactions and by other contracts.
1def supportsInterface(_interfaceID: bytes32) -> bool:2Nusxa olish
In contrast to Python, Vyper is a static typed language(opens in a new tab).
You can't declare a variable, or a function parameter, without identifying the data
type(opens in a new tab). In this case the input parameter is
bytes32, a 256-bit value
(256 bits is the native word size of the Ethereum Virtual Machine). The output is a boolean
value. By convention, the names of function parameters start with an underscore (
1 """2 @dev Interface identification is specified in ERC-165.3 @param _interfaceID Id of the interface4 """5 return self.supportedInterfaces[_interfaceID]6Nusxa olish
Return the value from the
self.supportedInterfaces HashMap, which is set in the constructor (
1### VIEW FUNCTIONS ###2Nusxa olish
These are the view functions that make information about the tokens available to users and other contracts.
1@view2@external3def balanceOf(_owner: address) -> uint256:4 """5 @dev Returns the number of NFTs owned by `_owner`.6 Throws if `_owner` is the zero address. NFTs assigned to the zero address are considered invalid.7 @param _owner Address for whom to query the balance.8 """9 assert _owner != ZERO_ADDRESS10HammasiNusxa olish
This line asserts(opens in a new tab) that
_owner is not
zero. If it is, there is an error and the operation is reverted.
1 return self.ownerToNFTokenCount[_owner]23@view4@external5def ownerOf(_tokenId: uint256) -> address:6 """7 @dev Returns the address of the owner of the NFT.8 Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT.9 @param _tokenId The identifier for an NFT.10 """11 owner: address = self.idToOwner[_tokenId]12 # Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT13 assert owner != ZERO_ADDRESS14 return owner15HammasiNusxa olish
In the Ethereum Virtual Machine (evm) any storage that does not have a value stored in it is zero.
If there is no token at
_tokenId then the value of
self.idToOwner[_tokenId] is zero. In that
case the function reverts.
1@view2@external3def getApproved(_tokenId: uint256) -> address:4 """5 @dev Get the approved address for a single NFT.6 Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT.7 @param _tokenId ID of the NFT to query the approval of.8 """9 # Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT10 assert self.idToOwner[_tokenId] != ZERO_ADDRESS11 return self.idToApprovals[_tokenId]12HammasiNusxa olish
getApproved can return zero. If the token is valid it returns
If there is no approver that value is zero.
1@view2@external3def isApprovedForAll(_owner: address, _operator: address) -> bool:4 """5 @dev Checks if `_operator` is an approved operator for `_owner`.6 @param _owner The address that owns the NFTs.7 @param _operator The address that acts on behalf of the owner.8 """9 return (self.ownerToOperators[_owner])[_operator]10HammasiNusxa olish
This function checks if
_operator is allowed to manage all of
_owner's tokens in this contract.
Because there can be multiple operators, this is a two level HashMap.
Transfer Helper Functions
These functions implement operations that are part of transferring or managing tokens.
12### TRANSFER FUNCTION HELPERS ###34@view5@internal6Nusxa olish
@internal, means that the function is only accessible from other functions within the
same contract. By convention, these function names also start with an underscore (
1def _isApprovedOrOwner(_spender: address, _tokenId: uint256) -> bool:2 """3 @dev Returns whether the given spender can transfer a given token ID4 @param spender address of the spender to query5 @param tokenId uint256 ID of the token to be transferred6 @return bool whether the msg.sender is approved for the given token ID,7 is an operator of the owner, or is the owner of the token8 """9 owner: address = self.idToOwner[_tokenId]10 spenderIsOwner: bool = owner == _spender11 spenderIsApproved: bool = _spender == self.idToApprovals[_tokenId]12 spenderIsApprovedForAll: bool = (self.ownerToOperators[owner])[_spender]13 return (spenderIsOwner or spenderIsApproved) or spenderIsApprovedForAll14HammasiNusxa olish
There are three ways in which an address can be allowed to transfer a token:
- The address is the owner of the token
- The address is approved to spend that token
- The address is an operator for the owner of the token
The function above can be a view because it doesn't change the state. To reduce operating costs, any function that can be a view should be a view.
1@internal2def _addTokenTo(_to: address, _tokenId: uint256):3 """4 @dev Add a NFT to a given address5 Throws if `_tokenId` is owned by someone.6 """7 # Throws if `_tokenId` is owned by someone8 assert self.idToOwner[_tokenId] == ZERO_ADDRESS9 # Change the owner10 self.idToOwner[_tokenId] = _to11 # Change count tracking12 self.ownerToNFTokenCount[_to] += 1131415@internal16def _removeTokenFrom(_from: address, _tokenId: uint256):17 """18 @dev Remove a NFT from a given address19 Throws if `_from` is not the current owner.20 """21 # Throws if `_from` is not the current owner22 assert self.idToOwner[_tokenId] == _from23 # Change the owner24 self.idToOwner[_tokenId] = ZERO_ADDRESS25 # Change count tracking26 self.ownerToNFTokenCount[_from] -= 127HammasiNusxa olish
When there's a problem with a transfer we revert the call.
1@internal2def _clearApproval(_owner: address, _tokenId: uint256):3 """4 @dev Clear an approval of a given address5 Throws if `_owner` is not the current owner.6 """7 # Throws if `_owner` is not the current owner8 assert self.idToOwner[_tokenId] == _owner9 if self.idToApprovals[_tokenId] != ZERO_ADDRESS:10 # Reset approvals11 self.idToApprovals[_tokenId] = ZERO_ADDRESS12HammasiNusxa olish
Only change the value if necessary. State variables live in storage. Writing to storage is one of the most expensive operations the EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) does (in terms of gas). Therefore, it is a good idea to minimize it, even writing the existing value has a high cost.
1@internal2def _transferFrom(_from: address, _to: address, _tokenId: uint256, _sender: address):3 """4 @dev Execute transfer of a NFT.5 Throws unless `msg.sender` is the current owner, an authorized operator, or the approved6 address for this NFT. (NOTE: `msg.sender` not allowed in private function so pass `_sender`.)7 Throws if `_to` is the zero address.8 Throws if `_from` is not the current owner.9 Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT.10 """11HammasiNusxa olish
We have this internal function because there are two ways to transfer tokens (regular and safe), but we want only a single location in the code where we do it to make auditing easier.
1 # Check requirements2 assert self._isApprovedOrOwner(_sender, _tokenId)3 # Throws if `_to` is the zero address4 assert _to != ZERO_ADDRESS5 # Clear approval. Throws if `_from` is not the current owner6 self._clearApproval(_from, _tokenId)7 # Remove NFT. Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT8 self._removeTokenFrom(_from, _tokenId)9 # Add NFT10 self._addTokenTo(_to, _tokenId)11 # Log the transfer12 log Transfer(_from, _to, _tokenId)13HammasiNusxa olish
To emit an event in Vyper you use a
log statement (see here for more details(opens in a new tab)).
12### TRANSFER FUNCTIONS ###34@external5def transferFrom(_from: address, _to: address, _tokenId: uint256):6 """7 @dev Throws unless `msg.sender` is the current owner, an authorized operator, or the approved8 address for this NFT.9 Throws if `_from` is not the current owner.10 Throws if `_to` is the zero address.11 Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT.12 @notice The caller is responsible to confirm that `_to` is capable of receiving NFTs or else13 they maybe be permanently lost.14 @param _from The current owner of the NFT.15 @param _to The new owner.16 @param _tokenId The NFT to transfer.17 """18 self._transferFrom(_from, _to, _tokenId, msg.sender)19HammasiNusxa olish
This function lets you transfer to an arbitrary address. Unless the address is a user, or a contract that knows how to transfer tokens, any token you transfer will be stuck in that address and useless.
1@external2def safeTransferFrom(3 _from: address,4 _to: address,5 _tokenId: uint256,6 _data: Bytes=b""7 ):8 """9 @dev Transfers the ownership of an NFT from one address to another address.10 Throws unless `msg.sender` is the current owner, an authorized operator, or the11 approved address for this NFT.12 Throws if `_from` is not the current owner.13 Throws if `_to` is the zero address.14 Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT.15 If `_to` is a smart contract, it calls `onERC721Received` on `_to` and throws if16 the return value is not `bytes4(keccak256("onERC721Received(address,address,uint256,bytes)"))`.17 NOTE: bytes4 is represented by bytes32 with padding18 @param _from The current owner of the NFT.19 @param _to The new owner.20 @param _tokenId The NFT to transfer.21 @param _data Additional data with no specified format, sent in call to `_to`.22 """23 self._transferFrom(_from, _to, _tokenId, msg.sender)24HammasiNusxa olish
It is OK to do the transfer first because if there's a problem we are going to revert anyway, so everything done in the call will be cancelled.
1 if _to.is_contract: # check if `_to` is a contract address2Nusxa olish
First check to see if the address is a contract (if it has code). If not, assume it is a user
address and the user will be able to use the token or transfer it. But don't let it lull you
into a false sense of security. You can lose tokens, even with
safeTransferFrom, if you transfer
them to an address for which nobody knows the private key.
1 returnValue: bytes32 = ERC721Receiver(_to).onERC721Received(msg.sender, _from, _tokenId, _data)2Nusxa olish
Call the target contract to see if it can receive ERC-721 tokens.
1 # Throws if transfer destination is a contract which does not implement 'onERC721Received'2 assert returnValue == method_id("onERC721Received(address,address,uint256,bytes)", output_type=bytes32)3Nusxa olish
If the destination is a contract, but one that doesn't accept ERC-721 tokens (or that decided not to accept this particular transfer), revert.
1@external2def approve(_approved: address, _tokenId: uint256):3 """4 @dev Set or reaffirm the approved address for an NFT. The zero address indicates there is no approved address.5 Throws unless `msg.sender` is the current NFT owner, or an authorized operator of the current owner.6 Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT. (NOTE: This is not written the EIP)7 Throws if `_approved` is the current owner. (NOTE: This is not written the EIP)8 @param _approved Address to be approved for the given NFT ID.9 @param _tokenId ID of the token to be approved.10 """11 owner: address = self.idToOwner[_tokenId]12 # Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT13 assert owner != ZERO_ADDRESS14 # Throws if `_approved` is the current owner15 assert _approved != owner16HammasiNusxa olish
By convention if you want not to have an approver you appoint the zero address, not yourself.
1 # Check requirements2 senderIsOwner: bool = self.idToOwner[_tokenId] == msg.sender3 senderIsApprovedForAll: bool = (self.ownerToOperators[owner])[msg.sender]4 assert (senderIsOwner or senderIsApprovedForAll)5Nusxa olish
To set an approval you can either be the owner, or an operator authorized by the owner.
1 # Set the approval2 self.idToApprovals[_tokenId] = _approved3 log Approval(owner, _approved, _tokenId)456@external7def setApprovalForAll(_operator: address, _approved: bool):8 """9 @dev Enables or disables approval for a third party ("operator") to manage all of10 `msg.sender`'s assets. It also emits the ApprovalForAll event.11 Throws if `_operator` is the `msg.sender`. (NOTE: This is not written the EIP)12 @notice This works even if sender doesn't own any tokens at the time.13 @param _operator Address to add to the set of authorized operators.14 @param _approved True if the operators is approved, false to revoke approval.15 """16 # Throws if `_operator` is the `msg.sender`17 assert _operator != msg.sender18 self.ownerToOperators[msg.sender][_operator] = _approved19 log ApprovalForAll(msg.sender, _operator, _approved)20HammasiNusxa olish
Mint New Tokens and Destroy Existing Ones
The account that created the contract is the
minter, the super user that is authorized to mint
new NFTs. However, even it is not allowed to burn existing tokens. Only the owner, or an entity
authorized by the owner, can do that.
1### MINT & BURN FUNCTIONS ###23@external4def mint(_to: address, _tokenId: uint256) -> bool:5Nusxa olish
This function always returns
True, because if the operation fails it is reverted.
1 """2 @dev Function to mint tokens3 Throws if `msg.sender` is not the minter.4 Throws if `_to` is zero address.5 Throws if `_tokenId` is owned by someone.6 @param _to The address that will receive the minted tokens.7 @param _tokenId The token id to mint.8 @return A boolean that indicates if the operation was successful.9 """10 # Throws if `msg.sender` is not the minter11 assert msg.sender == self.minter12HammasiNusxa olish
Only the minter (the account that created the ERC-721 contract) can mint new tokens. This can be a problem in the future if we want to change the minter's identity. In a production contract you would probably want a function that allows the minter to transfer minter privileges to somebody else.
1 # Throws if `_to` is zero address2 assert _to != ZERO_ADDRESS3 # Add NFT. Throws if `_tokenId` is owned by someone4 self._addTokenTo(_to, _tokenId)5 log Transfer(ZERO_ADDRESS, _to, _tokenId)6 return True7Nusxa olish
By convention, the minting of new tokens counts as a transfer from address zero.
12@external3def burn(_tokenId: uint256):4 """5 @dev Burns a specific ERC721 token.6 Throws unless `msg.sender` is the current owner, an authorized operator, or the approved7 address for this NFT.8 Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT.9 @param _tokenId uint256 id of the ERC721 token to be burned.10 """11 # Check requirements12 assert self._isApprovedOrOwner(msg.sender, _tokenId)13 owner: address = self.idToOwner[_tokenId]14 # Throws if `_tokenId` is not a valid NFT15 assert owner != ZERO_ADDRESS16 self._clearApproval(owner, _tokenId)17 self._removeTokenFrom(owner, _tokenId)18 log Transfer(owner, ZERO_ADDRESS, _tokenId)19HammasiNusxa olish
Anybody who is allowed to transfer a token is allowed to burn it. While a burn appears equivalent to transfer to the zero address, the zero address does not actually receives the token. This allows us to free up all the storage that was used for the token, which can reduce the gas cost of the transaction.
Using this Contract
In contrast to Solidity, Vyper does not have inheritance. This is a deliberate design choice to make the code clearer and therefore easier to secure. So to create your own Vyper ERC-721 contract you take this contract(opens in a new tab) and modify it to implement the business logic you want.
For review, here are some of the most important ideas in this contract:
- To receive ERC-721 tokens with a safe transfer, contracts have to implement the
- Even if you use safe transfer, tokens can still get stuck if you send them to an address whose private key is unknown.
- When there is a problem with an operation it is a good idea to
revertthe call, rather than just return a failure value.
- ERC-721 tokens exist when they have an owner.
- There are three ways to be authorized to transfer an NFT. You can be the owner, be approved for a specific token, or be an operator for all of the owner's tokens.
- Past events are visible only outside the blockchain. Code running inside the blockchain cannot view them.
Now go and implement secure Vyper contracts.