What are Ethereum upgrades?The Ethereum roadmap involves interconnected protocol upgrades that will make the network more scalable, more secure, and more sustainable. These upgrades are being built by multiple teams from across the Ethereum ecosystem.
Learn about previous Ethereum upgrades
What do you need to do?If you're a dapp user or ETH holder, you don't need to do anything. If you're a developer or want to start staking, there are ways you can get involved today.
Get involved in upgrading Ethereum
To bring Ethereum into the mainstream and serve all of humanity, we have to make Ethereum more scalable, secure, and sustainable.
Ethereum needs to support 1000s of transactions per second, to make applications faster and cheaper to use.
Ethereum needs to be more secure. As the adoption of Ethereum grows, the protocol needs to become more secure against all forms of attack.
Ethereum was energy-intense until recently. The transition to proof-of-stake brought a network energy reduction of over 99.9%.
Dive into the vision
How are we making Ethereum more scalable, secure, and sustainable? All while keeping Ethereum's core ethos of decentralization.
The Ethereum upgrades
Ethereum upgrades aim to improve the network's scalability, security, and sustainability. Ethereum has recently undergone some major upgrades to security and sustainability, and there are more coming in the future, especially relating to scalability.
The Beacon Chain
The Beacon Chain brought staking to Ethereum and laid the groundwork for future upgrades. It coordinates the new proof-of-stake Ethereum.
The Beacon Chain is live
Mainnet Ethereum merged with the proof-of-stake Beacon Chain, marking the end of energy-intensive mining.
The Merge is live
Sharding will expand Ethereum's capacity to store data, and work harmoniously with L2s to scale throughput and reduce network fees. Sharding will be rolled out in multiple stages.
What happened to 'Eth2'?
The term 'Eth2' was commonly used before The Merge but is being phased out in favor of more precise terminology. More on The Merge.
Since merging 'Eth1' and 'Eth2', there are no longer two distinct Ethereum blockchains; there is only Ethereum.
To limit confusion, the community has updated these terms:
- 'Eth1' is now the 'execution layer', which handles transactions and execution.
- 'Eth2' is now the 'consensus layer', which handles proof-of-stake consensus.
These terminology updates only change naming conventions; this does not alter Ethereum's goals or roadmap.
Why can't we just use Eth2?
One major problem with the Eth2 branding is that it creates a broken mental model for new users of Ethereum. They intuitively think that Eth1 comes first and Eth2 comes after. Or that Eth1 ceases to exist once Eth2 exists. Neither of these is true. By removing Eth2 terminology, we save all future users from navigating this confusing mental model.
As the roadmap for Ethereum has evolved, Ethereum 2.0 has become an inaccurate representation of Ethereum’s roadmap. Being careful and accurate in our word choice allows content on Ethereum to be understood by the broadest audience possible.
Unfortunately, malicious actors have attempted to use the Eth2 misnomer to scam users by telling them to swap their ETH for ‘ETH2’ tokens or that they must somehow migrate their ETH before the Eth2 upgrade. We hope this updated terminology will bring clarity to eliminate this scam vector and help make the ecosystem safer.
Some staking operators have also represented ETH staked on the Beacon Chain with the ‘ETH2’ ticker. This creates potential confusion, given that users of these services are not actually receiving an ‘ETH2’ token. No ‘ETH2’ token exists; it simply represents their share in that specific providers’ stake.
Want to help with the Ethereum upgrades?There are plenty of opportunities to weigh in on the Ethereum upgrades, help with testing, and even earn rewards.
Staking is here
Key to the Ethereum upgrades is the introduction of staking. If you want to use your ETH to help secure the Ethereum network, make sure you follow these steps.
1. Set up with the launchpad
To stake on Ethereum you'll need to use the launchpad - this will walk you through the process.Visit staking launchpad
2. Confirm staking address
Before you stake your ETH, be sure to check you've got the right address. You must have gone through the launchpad before doing this.Confirm deposit contract address
Learn about staking
The Beacon Chain brought staking to Ethereum. If you have ETH, you can do a public good by securing the network and earn more ETH in the process.
Frequently asked questions
When will the upgrades ship?
Ethereum is being upgraded progressively; the upgrades are distinct with different ship dates.
Is the Beacon Chain a separate blockchain?
Yes. The Beacon Chain was the name given to a parallel proof-of-stake blockchain used to upgrade Ethereum's Mainnet. There is now only one blockchain, formed by merging the original Ethereum blockchain and the Beacon Chain together.
How do I prepare for the upgrades?
You don't have to do anything right now to prepare for the upgrades.
What is the execution layer?
Before The Merge, the Ethereum blockchain was sometimes referred to as 'Eth1.' This term was phased out in favor of the 'execution layer'.
How do I stake?
You'll need to use the staking launchpad or join a staking pool.
Can I buy Eth2?
No. There is no Eth2 token, and your ETH did not change after The Merge.
What do I need to do with my dapp?
The Merge was designed to have minimal impact on dapp developers, though there were a couple of small changes worth noting.
Who's building the Ethereum upgrades?
Many different teams from all over the community are working on the various Ethereum upgrades.
Why are upgrades needed?
The Ethereum we use today needs to offer a better experience to end users and network participants.
How can I contribute to Ethereum upgrades?
You don't have to be technical to contribute. The community is looking for contributions from all kinds of skill sets.
What are the 'Eth2 phases?'
Some things have changed here.
Stay up to date
Get the latest from the researchers and developers working on the Ethereum upgrades.
Danny Ryan (Ethereum Foundation)
Ben Edgington (PegaSys, ConsenSys)
Take part in the research
Ethereum researchers and enthusiasts alike meet here to discuss research efforts, including everything related to Ethereum upgrades.Head to ethresear.ch