Page last updated: May 07, 2020
↳ Learn about Ethereum
Welcome to ethereum.org/learn, a set of resources to help you learn more about Ethereum. This page includes technical and non-technical articles, guides, and resources. If you’re totally new to Ethereum, we suggest you start here.
Here are some excellent starting points:
Decentralizing Everything Sep 18, 2017 - Vitalik Buterin (Video)
Why Decentralization Matters Feb 18, 2018 - Chris Dixon
The Year in Ethereum 2019 Jan 22, 2020 - Josh Stark & Evan Van Ness
Ethereum is game-changing technology, literally Mar 29, 2019 - Virgil Griffith
In addition to the information on this page, there are many community-built resources worth exploring:
EthHub Comprehensive knowledge base for all things Ethereum
District0x An educational resource about Ethereum targeted at beginners
Ethereum.wiki A community-built wiki about Ethereum’s technology
Kauri Technical articles and tutorials for Ethereum and related projects
Ethereum Foundation YouTube Videos and talks about Ethereum
Week in Ethereum News A weekly newsletter covering key developments across the ecosystem
What’s new in ETH 2.0 A regular newsletter about ETH 2.0 development
ethresear.ch forum Deeper technical discussions on Ethereum for ETH 2.0 and beyond
ETHGlobal An Ethereum hackathon series - attend one near you!
↳ How Ethereum works
High-level explanations of Ethereum and blockchain technology generally.
How does Ethereum work, anyway? Sept 27, 2017 - Preethi Kasireddy
A Gentle Introduction to Ethereum Oct 2, 2016 - Antony Lewis
Introduction to Blockchain through Cryptoeconomics - Part 1 Jan 26, 2018 - Zubin Koticha
Introduction to Blockchain through Cryptoeconomics - Part 2 July 19, 2018 - Zubin Koticha
↳ Smart Contracts
A “smart contract” is simply a piece of code that is running on Ethereum. It’s called a “contract” because code that runs on Ethereum can control valuable things like ETH or other digital assets.
Want to learn how to program on Ethereum with smart contracts? ethereum.org/developers
What is a Smart Contract? Nov 12, 2018 - Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood
What are Smart Contracts/Decentralized Applications? Updated often - Ethhub
↳ Proof of Work and Mining
Ethereum currently uses a system called “Proof of Work”. This allows the Ethereum network to agree on the state of all information recorded on the Ethereum blockchain, and prevents certain kinds of economic attacks.
In ETH 2.0, Ethereum will be moving to a different system called “Proof of Stake”. Read more about ETH 2.0 below.
↳ Clients and Nodes
The Ethereum network is made up of many nodes, each of which runs compatible client software. There are two clients that are used by a majority of nodes: Geth (written in Go) and Parity (written in Rust).
Want to learn how to run a node of your own? → ethereum.org/developers
↳ Enterprise Ethereum
Enterprise Ethereum refers to private, consortium, and hybrid implementations of the Ethereum codebase for business applications. Companies across the globe are already using Enterprise Ethereum to streamline financial markets, manage supply chains, and create new business models.
Read more about Enterprise Ethereum.
↳ Improving Ethereum’s Scalability
There are many efforts underway to make Ethereum more “scalable” by improving its speed and overall transaction throughput. Generally these are sorted into “Layer 1” and “Layer 2” solutions.
“Layer 1” refers to improving the core Ethereum protocol. The primary project to improve Ethereum’s core protocol is ETH 2.0.
“Layer 2” refers to technologies that are built “on top” of the base Ethereum protocol, enabling greater scalability without compromising on security. There are also “off-chain” technologies like side-chains, which enable greater scalability by making a different set of security tradeoffs.
Making Sense of Layer 2 Feb 12, 2018 - Josh Stark
The Case for Ethereum Scalability Jan 18, 2019 - Hunter Hillman, Steven McKie, and Eric Olszewski
5 Ways to Scale your Ethereum Dapp Apr 23, 2019 - Andreas Wallendahl
↳ Payment & State Channels
State Channels - an explanation Nov 6, 2015 - Jeff Coleman
Basics of State Channels District0x
State Channels Updated often - EthHub
Scaling Ethereum Dapps through Sidechains Feb 8, 2018 - Georgios Konstantopoulos
Understanding Plasma, Part 1: The Basics Feb 7, 2019 - Daniel Goldman
Understanding Plasma District0x
↳ ETH 2.0
ETH 2.0 (also known as “Serenity”) refers to the next major upgrade of the core Ethereum protocol. It combines several improvements to Ethereum’s core protocol, or “Layer 1”.
ETH 2.0 Roadmap and Phases Updated often - EthHub
Proof of Stake Updated often - EthHub
Sharding Updated often - EthHub
ETH 2.0 Researchers AMA Part 1 Jan 24, 2019 - EthHub
ETH 2.0 Researchers AMA Part 2 Jul 15, 2019 - EthHub
The Beacon Chain Ethereum 2.0 explainer you need to read first Feb 25, 2020 - ethos.dev
ETH 2.0 Hacker Start Updated often - Diederik Loerakker
Combining GHOST and Casper Mar 12, 2020 - Vitalik Buterin et. al
One security audit of ETH 2.0 specs Mar 6, 2020 - Dominic Tarr et. al
↳ ETH 1.x
ETH 1.x is the name for a collection of upgrades to the existing Ethereum protocol. The goal is to continue to improve and maintain Ethereum while ETH 2.0 is developed and implemented.
For more information, see EthHub’s explainer page about ETH 1.x
“Cryptoeconomics” is the practical science of building distributed systems, where properties of those systems are secured by financial incentives, and where the economic mechanisms are guaranteed by cryptography. It is the general term for the practice of designing and scaling blockchains like Ethereum and Bitcoin.
Intro to Cryptoeconomics (Video) Aug 19, 2018 - Karl Floersch
Making Sense of Cryptoeconomics Nov 16 2017 - Josh Stark
↳ Critique and skepticism
Critical views of Ethereum and Cryptocurrencies.
Ethereum’s roadmap isn’t ambitious enough March 27, 2019 - Interview with Rick Dudley
The Challenges of Building Ethereum Infrastructure Jan 8, 2018 - Jameson Lopp
Parsimonious Answers to Difficult Questions (Video) March 10, 2019 - Rick Dudley
There’s no good reason to trust blockchain technology Feb 6, 2019 - Bruce Schneier