Pomozte s překladem této stránky


Tato stránka je zobrazena v angličtině, protože jsme ji zatím nepřeložili. Pomozte nám přeložit tento obsah.

The Eth2 Upgrades

Upgrading Ethereum to radical new heights

The Ethereum we know and love, just more scalable, more secure, and more sustainable...
Illustration of a doge using a computer

What is Eth2?

Eth2 refers to a set of interconnected upgrades that will make Ethereum more scalable, more secure, and more sustainable. These upgrades are being built by multiple teams from across the Ethereum ecosystem.

What do you need to do?

If you're a dapp user or ETH holder, you don't need to do anything. If you're a developer or want to start staking, there are ways you can get involved today.
Get involved in Eth2

The vision✨

To bring Ethereum into the mainstream and serve all of humanity, we have to make Ethereum more scalable, secure, and sustainable.


More scalable

Ethereum needs to support 1000s of transactions per second, to make applications faster and cheaper to use.


More secure

Ethereum needs to be more secure. As the adoption of Ethereum grows, the protocol needs to become more secure against all forms of attack.


More sustainable

Ethereum needs to be better for the environment. The technology today requires too much computing power and energy.

Illustration of a group of people marvelling at an ether (ETH) glyph in awe

Dive into the vision

How are we going to make Ethereum more scalable, secure, and sustainable? All while keeping Ethereum's core ethos of decentralization.

The Eth2 upgrades

Eth2 is a set of upgrades that improve the scalability, security, and sustainability of Ethereum. Although each is being worked on in parallel, they have certain dependencies that determine when they will be deployed.

The Beacon Chain

The first Eth2 addition to the ecosystem. The Beacon Chain brings staking to Ethereum, lays the groundwork for future upgrades, and will eventually coordinate the new system.

The Beacon Chain is live

The merge

Mainnet Ethereum will need to “merge” with the Beacon Chain at some point. This will enable staking for the entire network and signal the end of energy-intensive mining.

Estimate: 2022

Shard chains

Shard chains will expand Ethereum's capacity to process transactions and store data. The shards themselves will gain more features over time, rolled out in multiple phases.

Estimate: 2023

Want to help with Eth2?

There are plenty of opportunities to weigh in on the Eth2 upgrades, help with testing, and even earn rewards.
Get involved
This is not the official roadmap. This is how we view what’s happening based on the information out there. But this is technology, things can change in an instant. So please don’t read this as a commitment.

Staking is here

Key to the Eth2 upgrades is the introduction of staking. If you want to use your ETH to help secure the Ethereum network, make sure you follow these steps.

1. Set up with the launchpad

To stake in Eth2 you’ll need to use the launchpad – this will walk you through the process.

Visit staking launchpad

2. Confirm staking address

Before you stake your ETH, be sure to check you’ve got the right address. You must have gone through the launchpad before doing this.

Confirm deposit contract address

Learn about staking

The beacon chain will bring staking to Ethereum. This means if you have ETH, you can do a public good by securing the network and earn more ETH in the process.

More on staking

Frequently asked questions

When will Eth2 ship?

Eth2 is a set of distinct upgrades with different ship dates.

The Beacon Chain

The Beacon Chain went live on December 1, 2020.

The merge

The merge is when Mainnet begins using the Beacon Chain for consensus, and proof-of-work is turned off. What's Mainnet?

Shard chains

Shard chains should follow the merge, some time in 2023.

Is Eth2 a separate blockchain?

It’s not accurate to think of Eth2 as a separate blockchain.


Think of Eth2 as a set of upgrades being added to improve the Ethereum we use today. These upgrades include the creation of a new chain called the beacon chain and up to 64 chains known as shards. More on the Eth2 upgrades

These are separate to the Ethereum Mainnet we use today but won’t replace it. Instead Mainnet will "merge" with this parallel system that’s being added over time. What's Mainnet?

In other words the Ethereum we use today will eventually embody all the features that we’re aiming towards in the Eth2 vision. More on the Eth2 vision

How do I prepare for Eth2?

You don't have to do anything right now to prepare for Eth2.


Eth holders certainly don't need to do anything. Your ETH will not need changing or upgrading. There's almost certain to be scams telling you otherwise, so be careful.

The merge and shard chain upgrades may impact dapp developers. But the specifications have not been finalised yet, so there's no immediate action required.

Talk to the Eth2 research and development team over at ethresear.ch.

Visit ethresear.ch

What is Eth1?

Eth1 refers to the Ethereum Mainnet you transact on today.


Whenever you send a transaction or use a dapp today, you're using Eth1. This is the Ethereum that is secured by miners. More on miners

'Eth1', or Mainnet, will continue to run as normal until the merge. More on the merge

After the merge, validators will secure the entire network via proof-of-stake. More on proof of stake

Anyone can become a validator by staking their ETH. More on staking

The Beacon Chain and shard chain upgrades will not disrupt Eth1 as they are being built out separately.

How do I stake?

You’ll need to use the staking launchpad or join a staking pool.


To become a full validator on the network, you'll need to stake 32 ETH. If you don't have that much, or aren't willing to stake that much, you can join staking pools. These pools will let you stake less and earn fractions of the total rewards.

More on staking

What do I need to do with my dapp?

Your dapp won’t be affected by any imminent upgrades. However future upgrades may require some changes.


For now, there's no actions to take. But we recommend you stay up to date with developments on the merge and shard chain upgrades.

Danny Ryan of the Ethereum foundation regularly updates the community: ethereum.org blog

Ben Edgington of ConsenSys has a weekly Eth2 newsletter: What's new in Eth2?

You can also join the discussion on Eth2 research and development at ethresear.ch. Visit ethresear.ch

Who's building Eth2?

Many different teams from all over the community are working on the various Eth2 upgrades.


The Eth2 client teams:

Why is Eth2 needed?

The Ethereum we use today needs to offer a better experience to end users and network participants.


The Eth2 upgrades will help Ethereum scale in a decentralized way, while maintaining security, and increasing sustainability.

Perhaps the most obvious problem is that Ethereum needs to be able to handle more than 15-45 transactions per second. But the Eth2 upgrades also address some other problems with Ethereum today. Guide to Eth2 upgrades

The network is in such high demand that it's making Ethereum expensive to use. Nodes in the network are struggling under the size of Ethereum and the amount of data their computers are having to process. And the underlying algorithm that keeps Ethereum secure and decentralized is energy intensive and needs to be greener.

A lot of what's changing has always been on the Ethereum roadmap, even since 2015. But current conditions are making the need for the upgrades even greater.

Explore the Eth2 vision

How can I contribute to Eth2?

You don't have to be technical to contribute. The community is looking for contributions from all kinds of skillsets.


The most active role you can play is to stake your ETH. Stake ETH

You may also want to run a second client to help improve client diversity. Check out the Eth2 clients

If you're more technical, you can help catch bugs in the new clients. View the bug bounty program

You can also weigh in on the technical discussions with Ethereum researchers at ethresear.ch. Visit ethresear.ch

What are the Eth2 phases?

Phases relate to phases of work and focus in the Eth2 technical roadmap.


We're reluctant to talk too much in terms of a technical roadmap because this is software: things can change. We think it's easier to understand what's happening when you read about the outcomes. View the upgrades

But if you've followed the discussions, here's how the upgrades fit into technical roadmaps, and a bit on how they're changing.

Phase 0 described the work to get the Beacon Chain live.

Phase 1 originally focused on implementing the shard chains, but prioritization has shifted to "the merge".

Phase 1.5 was originally planned to follow shard implementations, when Mainnet would be added as the last shard to the Beacon Chain. To expedite the transition away from proof-of-work mining, Mainnet will instead represent the first shard to connect with the Beacon Chain. This is now known as "the merge" and will be a significant step towards a greener Ethereum. More on proof of stake

Though the plans around Phase 2 have been a point of intense research and discussion, with the merge planned before shard chains, this will allow for continued reassessment as to the needs of Ethereum development moving forward. Given a rollup-centric roadmap, the immediate necessity of shard chains is debatable. More on a rollup-centric roadmap

Stay up to date

Get the latest from the researchers and developers working on the Eth2 upgrades.

Take part in the research

Ethereum researchers and enthusiasts alike meet here to discuss research efforts, including everything Eth2.

Head to ethresear.ch