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ជួយបកប្រែទំព័រនេះ

🌏

អ្នកកំពុងមើលទំព័រនេះជាភាសាអង់គ្លេស ដោយសារយើងមិនទាន់បានបកប្រែវានៅឡើយ។ ជួយយើងបកប្រែខ្លឹមសារនេះ។

បកប្រែទំព័រ

គ្មានកំហុសនៅទីនេះទេ!🐛

ទំព័រនេះមិនត្រូវបានបកប្រែទេ។ យើងបានដាក់ទំព័រនេះជាភាសាអង់គ្លេសដោយចេតនានៅពេលនេះ។

Solo stake your ETH

  • Receive maximum rewards directly from the protocol for keeping your validator properly functioning and online
  • Run home hardware and personally add to the security and decentralization of the Ethereum network
  • Remove trust, and never give up control of the keys to your funds
Leslie the rhino on her own computer chip.

What is solo staking?

Solo staking is the act of running an Ethereum node connected to the internet and depositing 32 ETH to activate a validator, giving you the ability to participate directly in network consensus.

An Ethereum node consists of both an execution layer (EL) client, as well as a consensus layer (CL) client. These clients are software that work together, along with a valid set of signing keys, to verify transactions and blocks, attest to the correct head of the chain, aggregate attestations, and propose blocks.

Solo stakers are responsible for operating the hardware needed to run these clients. It is highly recommended to use a dedicated machine for this that you operate from home–this is extremely beneficial to the health of the network.

A solo staker receives rewards directly from the protocol for keeping their validator properly functioning and online.

Why stake solo?

Solo staking comes with more responsibility, but provides you with maximum control over your funds and staking setup.

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Earn fresh ETH

Earn ETH-denominated rewards directly from the protocol when your validator is online, without any middlemen taking a cut.
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Full control

Keep your own keys. Choose the combination of clients and hardware that allows you to minimize your risk and best contribute to the health and security of the network. Third-party staking services make these decisions for you, and they don't always make the safest choices.
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Network security

Solo staking is the most impactful way to stake. By running a validator on your own hardware at home, you strengthen the robustness, decentralization, and security of the Ethereum protocol.

Considerations before staking solo

As much as we wish that solo staking was accessible and risk free to everyone, this is not reality. There are some practical and serious considerations to keep in mind before choosing to solo stake your ETH.

Comparison with other options

Staking as a service (SaaS)

With SaaS providers you're still required to deposit 32 ETH, but don't have to run hardware. You typically maintain access to your validator keys, but also need to share your signing keys so the operator can act on behalf of your validator. This introduces a layer of trust not present when running your own hardware, and unlike solo staking at home, SaaS does not help as much with geographic distribution of nodes. If you're uncomfortable operating hardware but still looking to stake 32 ETH, using a SaaS provider may be a good option for you.

Learn more about staking as a service

Pooled staking

Solo staking is significantly more involved than staking with a pooling service, but offer full access to ETH rewards, and full control over the setup and security of your validator. Pooled staking has a significantly lower barrier to entry. Users can stake small amounts of ETH, are not required to generate validator keys, and have no hardware requirements beyond a standard internet connection. Liquidity tokens enable the ability to exit from staking before this is enabled at the protocol level. If you're interested in these features, pooled staking may be a good fit.

Learn more about pooled staking

How it works

  1. Get some hardware: You need to run a node to stake.

  2. Sync an execution layer client

  3. Sync a consensus layer client

  4. Generate your keys and load them into your validator client

  5. Monitor and maintain your node

If ever desired, you can exit as a validator which eliminates the requirement to be online, and stops any further rewards. Be aware that until the planned Shanghai upgrade withdrawing those funds will not be possible.

After Shanghai, users will be able to withdraw their rewards as well as their stake if they choose.

Get started on the Staking Launchpad

The Staking Launchpad is an open source application that will help you become a staker. It will guide you through choosing your clients, generate your keys and depositing your ETH to the staking deposit contract. A checklist is provided to make sure you've covered everything to get your validator set up safely.

Choose network
Goerli/Prater testnet

Solo validators are expected to test their setup and operational skills on the Goerli/Prater testnet before risking funds. Remember it is important to choose a minority client as it improves the security of the network and limits your risk.

If you're comfortable with it, you can set up everything needed from the command line using the Staking Launchpad alone.

Start staking on Goerli/Prater testnet

To make things easier, check out some of the tools and guides below that can help you alongside the Staking Launchpad to get your clients set up with ease.

🛠Software tools and guide

What to consider with node and client setup tools

There are a growing number of tools and services to help you solo stake your ETH, but each come with different risks and benefits.

Attribute indicators are used below to signal notable strengths or weaknesses a listed staking tool may have. Use this section as a reference for how we define these attributes while you’re choosing what tools to help with your staking journey.

  • Open source
  • Audited
  • Bug bounty
  • Battle tested
  • Trustless
  • Permissionless
  • Multi-client
  • Self custody
  • Economical

Open source

Essential code is 100% open source and available to the public to fork and use

Open source

Closed source

Explore node and client setup tools

There are a variety of options available to help you with your setup. Use the above indicators to help guide you through the tools below.

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Please note the importance of choosing a minority client as it improves the security of the network, and limits your risk. Tools that allow you to setup minority client are denoted as "multi-client."

Node tools

Key Generators

These tools can be used as an alternative to the Staking Deposit CLI to help with key generation.

Have a suggestion for a staking tool we missed? Check out our product listing policy to see if it would be a good fit, and to submit it for review.

Explore solo staking guides

FAQ

These are a few of the most common questions about staking that are worth knowing about.

Further reading

Image of the Rhino mascot for the staking launchpad.

Join the staker community

EthStaker is a community for everyone to discuss and learn about staking on Ethereum. Join tens of thousands of members from around the globe for advice, support, and to talk all thing staking.

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