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How to stake your ETH

Earn rewards while securing Ethereum

Staking is a public good for the Ethereum ecosystem. Any user with any amount of ETH can help secure the network and earn rewards in the process.
插图:Rhino Mascot 的质押启动板。
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Total ETH staked

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Total validators

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Current APR

What is staking?

质押是存入 32 个以太币以激活验证者软件的行为。作为验证者,您将负责存储数据、处理交易和向区块链中添加新区块。这将为所有人保证以太坊的安全,您在这个过程中还可以赚取新的以太币。这个被称为权益证明的过程是由信标链引入的。

Learn how to get ETH

Why stake your ETH?

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Earn rewards

Rewards are given for actions that help the network reach consensus. You'll get rewards for running software that properly batches transactions into new blocks and checks the work of other validators because that's what keeps the chain running securely.

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Better security

The network gets stronger against attacks as more ETH is staked, as it then requires more ETH to control a majority of the network. To become a threat, you would need to hold the majority of validators, which means you'd need to control the majority of ETH in the system–that's a lot!

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More sustainable

Stakers don't need energy-intensive computers to participate in a proof-of-stake system–just a home computer or smartphone. This will make Ethereum better for the environment.

More on Ethereum's energy consumption

How to stake your ETH

It all depends on how much you are willing to stake. You'll need 32 ETH to activate your own validator, but it is possible to stake less.

Check out the options below and go for the one that is best for you, and for the network.

Solo home staking

Most impactful

Full control

Full rewards

Trustless

Solo staking on Ethereum is the gold standard for staking. It provides full participation rewards, improves the decentralization of the network, and never requires trusting anyone else with your funds.

Those considering solo staking should have at least 32 ETH and a dedicated computer connected to the internet ~24/7. Some technical know-how is helpful, but easy-to-use tools now exist to help simplify this process.

More on solo staking

Staking as a service

Your 32 ETH

Your validator keys

Entrusted node operation

If you don't want or don't feel comfortable dealing with hardware but still want to stake your 32 ETH, staking-as-a-service options allow you to delegate the hard part while you earn native block rewards.

These options usually walk you through creating a set of validator credentials, uploading your signing keys to them, and depositing your 32 ETH. This allows the service to validate on your behalf.

This method of staking requires a certain level of trust in the provider. To limit counter-party risk, the keys to withdrawal your ETH are usually kept in your possession.

More on staking as a service

Pooled staking

Stake any amount

Earn rewards

Keep it simple

Popular

Several pooling solutions now exist to assist users who do not have or feel comfortable staking 32 ETH.

Many of these options include what is known as 'liquid staking' which involves an ERC-20 liquidity token that represents your staked ETH.

Liquid staking enables easy and anytime exiting and makes staking as simple as a token swap. This option also allows users to hold custody of their assets in their own Ethereum wallet.

Pooled staking is not native to the Ethereum network. Third parties are building these solutions, and they carry their own risks.

More on pooled staking

Centralized exchanges

Least impactful

Highest trust assumptions

Many centralized exchanges provide staking services if you are not yet comfortable holding ETH in your own wallet. They can be a fallback to allow you to earn some yield on your ETH holdings with minimal oversight or effort.

The trade-off here is that centralized providers consolidate large pools of ETH to run large numbers of validators. This can be dangerous for the network and its users as it creates a large centralized target and point of failure, making the network more vulnerable to attack or bugs.

If you don't feel comfortable holding your own keys, that's okay. These options are here for you. In the meantime, consider checking out our wallets page, where you can get started learning how to take true ownership over your funds. When you're ready, come back and level up your staking game by trying one of the self-custody pooled staking services offered.

As you may have noticed, there are many ways to participate in Ethereum staking. These paths target a wide range of users and ultimately are each unique and vary in terms of risks, rewards, and trust assumptions. Some are more decentralized, battle-tested and/or risky than others. We provide some information on popular projects in the space, but always do your own research before sending ETH anywhere.

Comparison of staking options

There is no one-size-fits-all solution for staking, and each is unique. Here we'll compare some of the risks, rewards and requirements of the different ways you can stake.

Solo staking

Rewards

  • Maximum rewards - receive full rewards directly from the protocol
  • You'll get rewards for batching transactions into a new block or checking the work of other validators to keep the chain running securely
  • After The Merge you'll receive unburnt transaction fees for blocks you propose

Risks

  • Your ETH is at stake
  • There are penalties, which cost ETH, for going offline
  • Malicious behavior can result in 'slashing' of larger amounts of ETH and forced ejection from the network

Requirements

  • You must deposit 32 ETH
  • Maintain hardware that runs both an Ethereum execution client and consensus client while connected to the internet
  • The Staking Launchpad will walk you through the process and hardware requirements

Staking as a service

Rewards

  • Usually involves full protocol rewards minus monthly fee for node operations
  • Dashboards often available to easily track your validator client

Risks

  • Same risks as solo staking plus counter-party risk of service provider
  • Use of your signing keys is entrusted to someone else who could behave maliciously

Requirements

  • Deposit 32 ETH and generate your keys with assistance
  • Store your keys securely
  • The rest is taken care of, though specific services will vary

Pooled staking

Rewards

  • Pooled stakers accrue rewards differently, depending on which method of pooled staking chosen
  • Many pooled staking services offer one or more liquidity tokens that represents your staked ETH plus your share of the validator rewards
  • Liquidity tokens can be held in your own wallet, used in DeFi and sold if you decide to exit

Risks

  • Risks vary depending on the method used
  • In general, risks consist of a combination of counter-party, smart contract and execution risk

Requirements

  • Lowest ETH requirements, some projects require as little as 0.01 ETH
  • Deposit directly from your wallet to different pooled staking platforms or simply trade for one of the staking liquidity tokens
插图:Rhino Mascot 的质押启动板。

加入质押人社区

EthStaker 是一个供大家讨论和学习在以太坊上质押的社区。快来加入全球数万名成员的行列,一起寻求建议和支持并探讨质押的方方面面。

FAQ

Is staking already live?

Yes and no. Staking has been live since December 1, 2020, but until the Merge happens, the proof-of-stake consensus remains isolated on its own chain, while the existing Ethereum network as we know it continues to operate using proof-of-work. These two chains start separate, but with the Merge, proof-of-work will be fully deprecated, and proof-of-stake will become the sole means of consensus from here-on-out.

This means that staking is currently live for users to deposit their ETH, run a validator client, and start earning rewards. After the Merge, stakers will earn higher rewards as validators begin to process transactions and earn fee tips on top of protocol rewards. After the Shanghai update (planned to follow the Merge by a few months), stakers will then be able to withdraw rewards and funds from their validator balance.

关于合并的更多信息

What is a validator?

A validator is a virtual entity that lives on the Beacon Chain and participates in the consensus of the Ethereum protocol. Validators are represented by a balance, public key, and other properties. A validator client is the software that acts on behalf of the validator by holding and using its private key. A single validator client can hold many key pairs, controlling many validators.

Why do I need to have funds at stake?

A validator has the ability to propose and attest to blocks for the network. To prevent dishonest behavior, users must have their funds at stake. This allows the protocol to penalize malicious actors. Staking is a means to keep you honest, as your actions will have financial consequences.

Can I buy 'Eth2'?

There is no 'Eth2' token native to the protocol, as the native token ether (ETH) will not change with the transition to proof-of-stake. Learn more about The Merge

There are derivative tokens/tickers that may represent staked ETH (ie. rETH from Rocket Pool, stETH from Lido, ETH2 from Coinbase). Learn more about staking pools

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